Diet, but not food type, significantly affects micronutrient and toxic metal profiles in urine and/or plasma; a randomized, controlled intervention trial - Anses - Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail Access content directly
Journal Articles The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Year : 2022

Diet, but not food type, significantly affects micronutrient and toxic metal profiles in urine and/or plasma; a randomized, controlled intervention trial

Abstract

ABSTRACT Background Observational studies have linked Mediterranean Diets (MedDiets) and organic food consumption with positive health outcomes, which may be explained by higher mineral micronutrient and phenolic intake and lower dietary exposure to toxic compounds. Objectives We aimed to determine the effects of diet and food type (organic compared with conventional) on urinary excretion (UE) and/or plasma concentrations of mineral micronutrients, phenolics, and toxic metals. Methods Healthy adult participants were randomly allocated to a conventional (n = 14) or an intervention (n = 13) group. During a 2-wk period, the intervention group consumed a MedDiet made entirely from organic foods, whereas the conventional group consumed a MedDiet made from conventional foods. Before and after the intervention period, both groups consumed their habitual Western diets made from conventional foods. The primary outcome was UE and/or plasma concentrations of selected mineral micronutrients, toxic metals, and phenolic markers. In addition, we monitored diets using food diaries. The participants were aware of study group assignment, but the study assessors were not. Results Changing from a Western Diet to a MedDiet for 2 wk resulted in significant increases in UE of total phenolics and salicylic acid (by 46% and 45%, respectively), the mineral micronutrients Co, I, and Mn (by 211%, 70%, and 102%, respectively), and the toxic metal Ni (by 42%), and plasma Se concentrations (by 14%). However, no significant effects of food type (organic compared with conventional) were detected. Redundancy analysis identified vegetables, coffee, wine, and fruit as positive drivers for UE of phenolic markers and mineral micronutrients, and fish consumption as a positive driver for UE of Cd and Pb. Conclusions Although small effects of food type cannot be ruled out, our study suggests that only changing to a MedDiet with higher fruit and vegetable, and lower meat, consumption results in a large increase in phenolic and mineral micronutrient intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03254537.

Dates and versions

anses-03962830 , version 1 (30-01-2023)

Identifiers

Cite

Leonidas Rempelos, Juan Wang, Marcin Barański, Anthony Watson, Nikolaos Volakakis, et al.. Diet, but not food type, significantly affects micronutrient and toxic metal profiles in urine and/or plasma; a randomized, controlled intervention trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2022, 116 (5), pp.1278-1290. ⟨10.1093/ajcn/nqac233⟩. ⟨anses-03962830⟩
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